Analysis of 200 cases reveals that the two neurological syndromes, brachial neuritis and myelopathy, associated with cervical spondylosis are distinct with relatively little overlap. While upper limb motor and sensory loss are doubtless due to nerve root compression in cases of "pure' brachial neuritis, they are more likely to be due to cord damage in cases with myelopathy (with spastic paraparesis of lower limbs). In either group of cases, neurological features in the upper limbs are not very helpful in localizing the level of significant intervertebral disc pathology. Contrast radiology (myelography and possibly discography) is a reliable guide judging by the excellent results obtained by anterior route (Cloward's) operation at specific disc levels in a series of cases with longstanding complaints unrelieved by conservative treatment. Pathological data provide a rational basis for interpretation of clinical observations and for surgical treatment.