The effects of sera from guinea-pigs with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients were evaluated and compared with the activity of control sera using the isolated frog spinal cord. Ventral root responses (VRR) were recorded during supramaximal ipsilateral dorsal root stimulation in the presence and absence of 25% serum. In control experiments with normal human and guinea-pig sera we observed a consistent, reversible increase in VRR averaging 20% and 17% respectively, and in no case was any significant decrease produced. In contrast, sera from EAE guinea-pigs 12 to 19 days after injection produced an equally rapid, reversible decrease in VRR. The decrease averaged 36% and was highly significant (P less than 0.0001) relative to controls. Similarly, sera from MS patients on the average decreased the VRR by 26%, and this again was significant compared with controls (P less than 10(-6).