Effect of tryptophan administration on tryptophan, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and indoleacetic acid in human lumbar and cisternal cerebrospinal fluid.
Tryptophan 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and indoleacetic acid were measured in cerebrospinal fluid taken during pneumoencephalography from patients, some of whom took a 3 g or 6 g tryptophan load at various times before. Measurements were made on both lumbar and cisternal cerebrospinal fluid and the results showed similarities between indoleamine metabolism in human brain and spinal cord. Our data suggested that (1) the blood-brain barrier active transport system for tryptophan is not far from saturation with tryptophan and the rate-limiting enzyme in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase, is about half saturated. Therefore, both 3 g and 6 g tryptophan loads produced the same maximum rise in 5HT synthesis of just under 100%, (2) tryptamine differs from 5HT in two respects. It is more sensitive to changes in tryptophan availability than 5HT and the 6 g load increased brain tryptamine metabolism more than the 3 g load; also some of the tryptamine in brain is derived from peripheral sources and diffuses from blood to brain, (3) although the brain tryptamine content is much lower than that of 5HT, its rate of metabolism as indicated by CSF metabolite levels is not. In controls the rate of tryptamine metabolism is 15% of the rate of 5HT metabolism and this can increase to 40% after a 6 g tryptophan load.