Responses in the external anal and urethral sphincters as well as in the bulbocavernosus muscle have been evoked by supramaximal electrical stimulation of the penis (or clitoris), perineum and the peri-anal region and recorded electromyographically in 82 male subjects 5 to 73 years old and in nine female subjects 18 to 55 years old, who had no systemic diseases or demonstrable sacral nervous system lesion. On perineal stimulation (including the penis or clitoris) reflex responses with a typical latency of 33 ms and which exhibit no habituation were obtained in all muscles examined. Stimulation of the peri-anal region gave habituating reflex responses with a typical latency of 55 ms in all muscles examined. On perineal, and sometimes also peri-anal stimulation, stable short latency responses with typical latencies of 5 and 13 ms were recorded; both were considered to be direct responses. The different evoked muscle responses obtained by stimulation in the perineal and peri-anal region have to be distinguished when the bulbocavernosus and anal reflexes are recorded for evaluation of sacral nervous system lesions.
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