Twenty-five cases of peroneal muscular atrophy with pyramidal features from 15 families are described. This disorder has been referred to as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) type V by Dyck. Onset was usually in the first two decades of life with difficulty in walking. The clinical syndrome superficially resembled that of HMSN types I and II with distal wasting and weakness involving the legs more than the arms. The tendon reflexes in the upper limbs and at the knee tended to be normal or increased but the ankle jerks were often absent. The plantar responses were extensor in 22 patients, absent in two and flexor in one. Increased tone and weakness in the proximal lower limb muscles were found in about 30% of cases. Mean motor nerve conduction velocity was lower than in normal controls and sensory nerve action potentials were reduced in amplitude or absent in two thirds of the patients studied. Inheritance was autosomal dominant in the majority of families. The disorder was slowly progressive but did not lead to severe disability.
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