We report two brothers with previously unexplained mental retardation and seizures who had dysmorphic facial features, macro-orchidism, and a fragile site at the X chromosome. This recently described syndrome is the second most common chromosome aberration associated with mental retardation after Down's syndrome. In order to determine the prevalence of seizures and the frequency of specific neurological features, we studied a total of 17 patients with the fragile X syndrome. 41% had grand mal seizures; 41% had extensor plantar responses; 47% had hyperactive behaviour and 65% exhibited stereotypics; 59% had incoordination and 35% had blepharospasm. We emphasise the need for chromosome analysis of patients with unexplained mental retardation, specific phenotypic abnormalities, and large testes.
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