The term "ocular bobbing" defines a distinctive class of abnormal spontaneous vertical eye movements which occur in a variety of clinicopathological settings. Four cardinal forms, which correspond to the predicted permutations of the two characteristic clinical variables, initial vertical excursion and phasic velocity, have now been described. Reverse ocular dipping, with directional reversal and phasic inversion from typical ocular bobbing, is the last link in this functional tetrad and is newly presented. The four pathological forms share several basic phenomenological features but exhibit clinical and aetiological diversity and significant differences in prognosis. An analysis of the clinical spectrum of disorders subsumed under the general heading of "ocular bobbing" is presented.
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