The brains of 22 ex-boxers were examined histologically to determine the frequency of recent or old haemorrhage. Four boxers had died from an acute intracerebral bleed, usually soon after a boxing bout. Seven of the other 18 showed evidence of previous perivascular haemorrhage, as detected by Perls' ferrocyanide test for iron, and a similar number showed minor degrees of meningeal or subpial siderosis, consistent with previous meningeal bleeding; cerebellar siderosis was present in six cases. Seventeen of the 22 boxers showed evidence of recent or past haemorrhage. Control material showed an incidence of 11% for perivascular iron deposition and only 4% for minor degrees of meningeal siderosis.
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