This review concentrates on the definition and classification of degenerative movement disorders in which Parkinsonian symptoms are often prominent. The pathological spectrum and clinical manifestations of Lewy body disease are described, and associations with Alzheimer's disease and motor neuron disease are explored. A classification of pallidonigral degenerations is based on clinical features, distribution of pathology, and morphological abnormalities; some of these patients have mild nigral degeneration and no Parkinsonian features. Many other juvenile and familial Parkinsonian cases are not included among the pallidonigral degenerations. Most of these latter syndromes have been organised into preliminary groups, in particular, autosomal dominant dystonia-Parkinson syndrome, juvenile Parkinsonian disorder and autosomal dominant Lewy body disease.
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