Apathy and hypersomnia are common features of myotonic dystrophy
- aSection of Developmental Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, Trumpington Road, Cambridge, CB2 2AH, UK, bDepartment of Medical Genetics, Box 158, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 2QQ, UK
- Dr J S Rubinsztein, Section of Developmental Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, Trumpington Road, Cambridge, CB2 2AH, UK.
- Received 30 April 1997
- Revised 17 July 1997
- Accepted 1 August 1997
OBJECTIVES Myotonic dystrophy is a disease characterised by myotonia and muscle weakness. Psychiatric disorder and sleep problems have also been considered important features of the illness. This study investigated the extent to which apathy, major depression, and hypersomnolence were present. The objective was to clarify if the apathy reported anecdotally was a feature of CNS involvement or if this was attributable to major depression, hypersomnolence, or a consequence of chronic muscle weakness.
METHODS These features were studied in 36 adults with non-congenital myotonic dystrophy and 13 patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. By using patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease as a comparison group the aim was to control for the disabling effects of having an inherited chronic neurological disease causing muscle weakness. Standardised assessment instruments were used wherever possible to facilitate comparison with other groups reported in the medical literature.
RESULTS There was no excess of major depression on cross sectional analysis in these patients with mild myotonic dystrophy. However, apathy was a prominent feature of myotonic dystrophy in comparison with a similarly disabled group of patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (clinician rated score; Mann Whitney U test, p=0.0005). Rates of hypersomnolence were greater in the myotonic dystrophy group, occurring in 39% of myotonic dystrophy patients, but there was no correlation with apathy.
CONCLUSION These data suggest that apathy and hypersomnia are independent and common features of myotonic dystrophy. Apathy cannot be accounted for by clinical depression or peripheral muscle weakness and is therefore likely to reflect CNS involvement. These features of the disease impair quality of life and may be treatable.