J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 72:400-402 doi:10.1136/jnnp.72.3.400
  • Short report

Rumination and executive function in depression: an experimental study

  1. E Watkins,
  2. R G Brown
  1. Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to:
 Dr E Watkins, Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespingny Park, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AF, UK
  • Received 3 April 2001
  • Accepted 31 October 2001
  • Revised 5 October 2001


Background: Major depression is associated with cognitive deficits, particularly those requiring central executive functioning. Depressed patients also tend to focus on and think about their symptoms and problems (“ruminate”) more than non-depressed controls. Although an association has been found between rumination and impaired performance on a central executive processing task, the causal relation between impaired executive functioning and rumination has not been determined. This study sought to directly manipulate rumination and assess the impact on executive functioning in depression as measured by random number generation.

Methods: Depressed patients (n=14) and non-depressed controls (n=14) were compared on a random number generation task, performed after both a rumination induction and after a distraction induction, with order of inductions counter balanced within each group.

Results: Compared with the distraction induction, the rumination induction produced a significant increase in both ruminations and the tendency towards stereotyped counting responses (thought to reflect a failure of inhibitory executive control) in depressed patients but not in controls. However, after distraction, no difference in random number generation or rumination was found between the two groups.

Conclusions: The aspects of executive function involved in random number generation are not fundamentally impaired in depressed patients. In depressed patients, the rumination induction seems to trigger the continued generation of ruminative stimulus independent thoughts, which interferes with concurrent executive processing.


    Visit the full archive of podcasts for JNNP here >>

    Free sample
    This recent issue is free to all users to allow everyone the opportunity to see the full scope and typical content of JNNP.
    View free sample issue >>

    Don't forget to sign up for content alerts so you keep up to date with all the articles as they are published.

    Navigate This Article