J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 74:1364-1370 doi:10.1136/jnnp.74.10.1364
  • Neuroscience for neurologists

Molecular pathogenesis of neuroinflammation

  1. M Bradl1,
  2. R Hohlfeld2
  1. 1Institute for Brain Research, Department of Neuroimmunology, Vienna, Austria
  2. 2Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich, Germany
  1. Correspondence to:
 Dr M Bradl
 Institute for Brain Research, Department of Neuroimmunology, Spitalgasse 4, A-1090 Vienna, Austria;
  • Received 19 May 2003
  • Accepted 8 July 2003
  • Revised 4 July 2003


The past few years have seen significant progress towards understanding the mechanisms of immune surveillance and inflammation in the nervous system. In this review, the milestones of scientific discovery in this field are discussed, and the strengths and limitations of the different ways of examining the molecular pathogenesis of neuro-inflammation examined. The review is limited to the inflammatory reactions of the central nervous system that occur in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.


  • Conflicting interests: none declared

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