Background: Single and repeat concussions have a high prevalence in sport. However, there is limited research into longterm risks associated with single and repeat concussions.
Objectives: To determine the effects of single and repeat historical concussions on the neuropsychological functioning and neurological reports of licensed jockeys.
Methods: Six hundred and ninety eight licensed jockeys in the UK were assessed for neurological and neuropsychological symptoms of concussion at least three months after potential episodes.
Results: Jockeys reporting multiple historical injuries versus a single injury showed reliable decrements on a measure of response inhibition and, to a less robust degree, on divided attention. Younger adults showed greater vulnerability.
Conclusions: Repeated concussion is associated with reliable decrements in cognitive performance—even after a three month window for recent recovery.
- PCS, post-concussion symptoms
- mild brain injury
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Competing interests: none declared