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J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 78:959-963 doi:10.1136/jnnp.2006.106831
  • Paper

Risk factors for acute ischaemic stroke in young adults in South India

  1. K Lipska1,
  2. P N Sylaja2,
  3. P S Sarma3,
  4. K R Thankappan3,
  5. V R Kutty4,
  6. R S Vasan5,
  7. K Radhakrishnan2
  1. 1Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  2. 2Department of Neurology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India
  3. 3The Achutha Menon Centre For Health Science Studies, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India
  4. 4Health Action by People, Kerala, India
  5. 5Cardiology Section and Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  1. Correspondence to:
 Dr K Radhakrishnan
 Department of Neurology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum-695 011, Kerala, India; krk{at}sctimst.ac.in
  • Received 13 September 2006
  • Accepted 1 January 2007
  • Revised 30 November 2006
  • Published Online First 12 January 2007

Abstract

Background: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in developing countries, afflicting individuals at a young age. The contribution of established vascular risk factors to ischaemic stroke in young adults has not been evaluated systematically in Indians.

Methods: We conducted a case control study in 214 South Indian patients with first acute ischaemic stroke that occurred between the ages of 15 and 45 years, 99 age and sex matched hospital controls and 96 community controls. We compared the prevalence of the following risk factors: smoking, elevated blood pressure, high fasting blood glucose and abnormal lipids.

Results: Compared with community controls, stroke patients had a higher prevalence of smoking (multivariable adjusted odds ratio (OR) 7.77, 95% CI 1.93 to 31.27), higher systolic blood pressure (OR per SD increment of 1.88, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.49) and fasting blood glucose (OR per SD increment of 4.55, 95% CI 1.63 to 12.67), but lower high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (OR per SD increment of 0.17, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.30). Compared with hospital controls, stroke patients had a higher prevalence of smoking (OR 3.95, 95% CI 1.61 to 9.71) and lower HDL cholesterol (OR per SD increment 0.27, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.44). The presence of ⩾3 metabolic syndrome components was associated strongly with stroke (OR 4.76, 95% CI 1.93 to 11.76; OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.06 to 4.13) compared with community and hospital controls.

Conclusions: Key components of the metabolic syndrome and smoking are associated with ischaemic stroke in young South Indian adults. Our observations underscore the importance of targeting adolescents and young adults for screening and prevention to reduce the burden of ischaemic stroke in young adults.

Footnotes

  • Published Online First 12 January 2007

  • Competing interests: None.

  • Individual author’s contribution to this research and responsibilities: Drs Lipska, Sylaja, Radhakrishnan and Vasan were involved in study conception and design, analysis and interpretation of the data, including writing and critical revision of the report. Dr Sarma provided statistical expertise and directed the analysis and interpretation of the data, and participated in the writing and critical revision of the report. Dr Kutty participated in the collection of data on community controls, the analysis and interpretation of data, and the writing and critical revision of the report. Dr Thankappan contributed to the interpretation of the data, including writing and critical revision of the report. The corresponding author, Dr Radhakrishnan, had full access to all the data in the study, and had final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication.

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