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Neurological picture
Periventricular heterotopia in refractory epilepsy
  1. Anna Cristina Christopher1,
  2. Kurien Koshy2
  1. 1 Department of Medicine, Launceston General Hospital, Tasmania, Australia
  2. 2 Department of Neurology, Launceston General Hospital, Tasmania, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Kurien Koshy, Department of Neurology, Launceston General Hospital, Neurology Charles St. Launceston, Tasmania 7250, Australia; drkkoshy{at}

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Malformations of cortical development (MCD) are well associated with chronic epilepsy.1 MCD includes a variety of developmental disorders including periventricular heterotopia, focal cortical dysplasia, polymicrogyria, subcortical heterotopia and lissencephaly.2

We report a 32-year-old female seen in our outpatient clinics with a long history of refractory seizures since the age of 17. Her seizure semiology was in keeping with primary generalised tonic clonic seizures. She had been tried on various anti-epileptic monotherapies but had only brief periods of remission. …

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