Background and aim There is uncertainty about the long-term prognosis after spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Therefore, we systematically reviewed the literature for studies reporting long-term survival and ICH recurrence, and their predictors.
Methods We searched Ovid Medline 1946–2011 inclusive for cohort studies of ≥50 patients reporting long-term (>30 days) outcome after ICH. Two reviewers independently extracted data from each study. We meta-analysed 1-year and 5-year survival data from population-based studies using a random effects model (and quantified inconsistency using the I2 statistic).
Results We identified 122 eligible studies. The pooled estimate of 1-year survival was 46% (95% CI 43% to 49%; nine population-based studies (n=2408); I2=27%) and 5-year survival was 29% (95% CI 26% to 33%; three population-based studies (n=699); I2=6%). In 27 cohort studies, predictors most consistently associated with death were increasing age, decreasing Glasgow Coma Scale score, increasing ICH volume, presence of intraventricular haemorrhage, and deep/infratentorial ICH location. The annual risk of recurrent ICH varied from 1.3% to 7.4% in nine studies and this risk was higher after lobar ICH than non-lobar ICH in two of three hospital-based studies. Four studies reporting the risks of recurrent ICH and ischaemic stroke after ICH found no significant differences between these risks.
Conclusions Less than a half of patients with ICH survive 1 year and less than a third survive 5 years. Risks of recurrent ICH and ischaemic stroke after ICH appear similar after ICH, provoking uncertainties about the use of antithrombotic drugs.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.