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Review
Camptocormia in Parkinson's disease: definition, epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment modalities
  1. Prachaya Srivanitchapoom1,2,
  2. Mark Hallett2
  1. 1Faculty of Medicine, Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
  2. 2Human Motor Control Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Mark Hallett, Human Motor Control Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive MSC 1428, Building 10, Room 7D37, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA; hallettm{at}ninds.nih.gov

Abstract

Camptocormia is an axial postural deformity characterised by abnormal thoracolumbar spinal flexion. The symptom usually presents while standing, walking or exercising and is alleviated while sitting, lying in a recumbent position, standing against a wall or using walking support. There is no consensus on the degree of thoracolumbar flexion to define camptocormia. However, most authors usually use an arbitrary number of at least 45° flexion of the thoracolumbar spine when the individual is standing or walking. Aetiologies of camptocormia are heterogeneous, and Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of its many causes. The prevalence of camptocormia in PD ranges from 3% to 18%. Central and peripheral mechanisms might both contribute to its pathogenesis. Although there is no established consensus for treatment of camptocormia in PD, there are non-pharmacological, pharmacological and surgical approaches that can be used.

  • CLINICAL NEUROLOGY
  • MOVEMENT DISORDERS
  • PARKINSON'S DISEASE

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