Objectives We reviewed 466 cases of Status Epilepticus admitted to ITU between 1996–2013 in Greater Glasgow and Clyde hospitals. We studied longitudinal patterns of aetiology and outcomes where records were available.
Results 466 cases have been fully reviewed.
Of the total assessed, 289 (62%) had SE without prior diagnosis of epilepsy (‘De Novo Status Epilepticus – DNSE). Of these, 146 (51%) were precipitated by alcohol and/or non-prescription drugs. Other causes included infections (9%), metabolic (7%), idiopathic (6%) and Pseudo seizure (1.7%). Outcome studies showed 50% patients recovered with no deficit, 27% recovered with neurological deficit. In 16% patients outcome data was not available. Mortality during admission occurred in 7.7%. At one year after admission, mortality rate was 19%.
172 patients had a previous diagnosis of epilepsy (37%). The most commonly identified cause was alcohol and drug abuse n=53 (30%). Other causes included sepsis 11%, change in medication or non-compliance 10% and Pseudo seizures 3%. Immediate mortality was 5%. 1 year mortality was 10.2%. 66% patients recovered with no deficit, 21% with deficit, no outcome data was available for 8% patients.
No information on prior epilepsy n=5 (1%).
Conclusion Preliminary data suggest that DNSE leading to ITU admission is more common (62% cases) than SE as a complication of epilepsy. Among our sample, 43% of SE cases were caused by chronic alcohol and drugs intake. Patients with known epilepsy have better outcome and less mortality than those with DNSE.