Objective: Antibodies with reactivity to peripheral nerve myelin have previously been found in the serum, and bound to peripheral nerves of patients with Guillain- Barré syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). Our aim was to investigate the presence of antibodies reactive with specific peptide sequences within the myelin proteins P0 and P2, in patients with GBS, in patients with CIDP, in healthy controls, and in patients with other neuropathies (ON).
Methods: Blood was obtained from 48 patients with GBS, 36 with CIDP, 48 with ON and 38 healthy controls. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect antibody responses to peptides of the human peripheral myelin proteins P0 and P2. Blood samples were collected from GBS patients in early, peak and recovery stages of GBS to analyse antibody levels throughout the course of the disease.
Results: We found significantly elevated total IgG levels in GBS patients compared to other groups. A higher percentage of GBS patients at the peak of disease had antibody reactivity to P214-25 compared to CIDP patients and control groups. In patients with GBS and patients with CIDP, the percentages of patients with antibody reactivity to P261-70, and peptides derived from P0 were comparable with the control groups. Although some individual GBS patients had high titres of reactivity to the peptide antigens tested, the majority of GBS and CIDP patients had similar levels of antibody to controls.
Conclusion: Our data suggests that elevated IgG levels and increased antibody reactivity to P2 14-25 in GBS patients at the peak of disease may play a contributory role in the disease process in some patients with demyelinating forms of GBS.
- Guillain Barrre syndrome
- chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
- myelin proteins