Objective: To determine clinical variables related to recurrent lacunar infarction following a previous lacunar stroke.
Methods: A total of 122 out of 733 consecutive patients with lacunar infarction collected from a hospital-based registry between 1986 and 2004 were readmitted because of a recurrent lacunar infarction. In a subset of 59 patients, cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Predictors of lacunar infarction recurrence were assessed by logistic regression analysis.
Results: First lacunar infarction recurrence occurred in 101 patients (83%) and multiple recurrences in 21. The mean time between first ever lacunar infarction and recurrent lacunes was 58.3 months (range 2–240 months). In the subset of 59 patients in whom cognition was studied, cognitive impairment defined as MMSE score < 24 was detected in 16% (8/49) of patients with first lacunar infarction recurrence and in 40% (4/10) of those with multiple lacunar infarction recurrences. In the multivariate analysis, hypertension (odds ratio 2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.23–3.30) and diabetes (odds ratio 1.62, 95% confidence interval 1.07–2.46) were significantly predictors of lacunar stroke recurrence, whereas hyperlipidaemia was inversely associated (odds ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.30–0.90).
Conclusions: Hypertension and diabetes were significant factors related to recurrent lacunar infarction. Hyperlipidaemia appeared to have a protective role. Cognitive impairment was a frequent finding in patients with multiple lacunar infarction recurrences.
- Brain infarction
- Cerebrovascular disorders