Background: Lipid storage myopathy (LSM), defined by triglyceride accumulation in muscle fibers, is a heterogeneous group of lipid metabolic disorders predominantly affecting skeletal muscle. In the past 15 years, more than 200 cases of LSM have been reported in Chinese literature, but the accurate pathogenic mechanisms are still unknown.
Objective: In order to gain more insight into the metabolic and genetic dysfunctions of LSM, we described a group of Chinese patients with LSM who were well responsive to isolated riboflavin treatment (riboflavin responsive LSM, RR-LSM).
Methods: Nineteen consecutive LSM patients collected during 1995-2007 in our Neuromuscular Laboratory who were dramatically responsive to riboflavin and presented with proximal muscle weakness, exercise intolerance and elevated serum CK but without episodic encephalopathy were subjected to pathological, biochemical and molecular analysis.
Results: On the basis of muscle pathology, all 19 patients were diagnosed as LSM. Seventeen patients were suspected to have multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) according to blood acylcarnitine profiles and urine organic acid analysis. Genetic analysis identified 19 novel mutations in ETFDH gene in 18 patients, among which one was homozygote, sixteen were compound heterozygotes and one was single heterozygote. No pathogenic mutation was detected in ETFA or ETFB genes. Western blot analysis showed there was no significant decrease in ETF:QO expression except for one patient.
Conclusions: Our research findings suggest that the majority of Chinese patients with RR-LSM are caused by mild type of MADD with unique myopathy which is due to ETFDH gene mutation.