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- Multiple sclerosis
- spinal cord atrophy
- brain grey matter atrophy
- long-term outcomes
- multiple sclerosis
In MRI studies of multiple sclerosis (MS), brain grey matter (GM) and spinal cord atrophy correlate with disability.1 2 However, it is uncertain whether they independently associate with long-term disability. We measured upper cervical cord cross-sectional area (UCCA) in a cohort of patients ∼20 years after presenting with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of MS. Associations of brain GM atrophy and white matter (WM) lesion load with disability had been previously observed in the cohort.1 We now report UCCA measurements and independent associations of the cord and brain measures with disability.
Seventy patients presenting with CIS had analysable brain and MRI scans acquired on a 1.5 T scanner after a median of 20 years (range 18–27). Clinically definite MS (CDMS) was diagnosed clinically.3 Disability was assessed with the expanded disability status scale (EDSS)4 and MS functional composite score (MSFC) plus its three components, paced serial auditory attention test (PASAT; 3 s interval), nine-hole peg test (9HPT) and 25-foot timed walk (T25FW). CDMS subgroups were defined as relapsing–remitting (RR) or secondary progressive (SP) MS; those with an EDSS ≤3 were classified as benign.5
At the 20-year follow-up, 27 remained CIS, 32 had RRMS (21 benign MS, 11 non-benign RRMS (EDSS>3)), and 11 had SPMS. UCCA and brain MR parameters were measured as previously described.1 2 UCCA was also measured in 17 healthy volunteers.
Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS Version 11.0 (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois) and Stata 9.2 (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas). Subgroup comparisons of UCCA were performed …