Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is an effective treatment for patients with recently symptomatic severe carotid stenosis and in selected patients with symptomatic moderate carotid stenosis. Carotid artery angioplasty and stenting (CAS) is emerging as an alternative to CEA, and randomised controlled trials suggest comparable efficacy to CEA in prevention of non-perioperative stroke. Neurovascular complications can result from both procedures, usually from thromboembolism from the operated vessel, cerebral hypoperfusion causing ischaemia and, rarely, intracerebral haemorrhage. The overall incidence of perioperative strokes complicating CEA and CAS is approximately 4% and 6%, respectively, and represents a devastating outcome that the procedure was designed to prevent. Other neurological sequelae complicating carotid revascularisation include cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome, cranial and peripheral nerve injuries, and contrast encephalopathy in patients undergoing CAS. In this review, we analyse the incidence, mechanisms and perioperative management of neurological complications for patients undergoing carotid revascularisation.
- Carotid endarterectomy
- carotid artery stenting
- cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome
- cranial nerve injury, cerebrovascular disease
- vascular surgery
- infectious diseases
- arterial dissection
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