Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by motor dysfunction (parkinsonism) and several non-motor features. Dysautonomia is a significant non-motor feature. Autonomic dysfunction can occur even in the early stages of PD, often preceding the onset of the classic motor symptoms of PD. The patterns of autonomic features in PD are different from other parkinsonian disorders. Detection of autonomic dysfunction may therefore be helpful in diagnosing PD in the early or pre-motor stages, and/or in differentiating it from other parkinsonian disorders, such as multiple system atrophy and progressive supuranuclear palsy. The aim of this review is to describe aspects of autonomic dysfunction, including symptoms, assessment and pathophysiology, resulting from autonomic impairment in PD and other parkinsonian syndromes. This should improve treatment of disabilities in PD.
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Correction notice This paper has been amended since it was published Online First. In the abstract in the second sentence the following has been removed: “as well as a neuropsychiatric symptom.” The authors have pointed out that is is because autonomic dysfunction is not a neuropsychiatric symptom. The meaning of the original sentence was to highlight that autonomic dysfunction is a common non-motor feature of PD alongside neuropsychiatric symptoms that can also occur in PD. There have also been some changes to the grammar in this paper. Also reference 21 has been changed.
Competing interests None.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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