Table 1

Voxel-based morphometry studies in pathology-confirmed (or genetically confirmed) dementias

Study Year Defined pathologies Pathology confirmed cases, n Comparison with controls Direct pathology comparison PubMed ID
Whitwell et al 2004Tau-positive FTLD, tau-negative FTLD9, 8YesNo16908994
Whitwell et al 2005FTLD-U, Pick’s, MAPT9, 7, 5YesYes16157747
Josephs et al 2006NA—various pathologies grouped by language impairment features12NANA16613895
Grossman et al 2007Tau-positive FTLD, tau-negative FTLD, (frontal variant)-AD5, 4, 3YesNo17998442
Josephs et al 2008a(aphasic)-AD, (aphasic)-FTLD-U, (typical)-AD5, 5, 10YesYes18166704
Josephs et al 2008bPSP, CBD13, 11YesNo17097770
Josephs et al 2008cArgyrophilic grain pathology12YesNo17188783
Whitwell et al 2008Braak stages III–VI10, 13, 32, 27YesNA18765650
Josephs et al 2009NA—FTLD groups defined based on clinical features11NANA19884571
Pereira et al 2009Tau-positive FTLD, FTLD-U6, 9YesNo19433738
Hu et al 2010NA—various pathologies grouped by language impairment features8NANA20713948
Josephs et al 2010(CBS)-CBD, (CBS)-AD6, 5YesYes20629131
Rohrer et al 2010aGRN, MAPT9, 11YesYes20045477
Rohrer et al 2010bFTLD-TDP43 (types A–C and unspecified)9, 5, 10, 4YesNo21172843
Whitwell et al 2010a(CBS)-TDP43, (CBS)-AD, (CBS)-CBD, (CBS)-PSP5, 6, 7, 6YesYes21098403
Whitwell et al 2010bFTLD-TDP43 (types A–C)22, 9, 11YesYes21172844
Lee et al 2011CBD, (CBS)-AD, (CBS)-CBD, (CBS)-PSP, (CBS)-TDP, (CBS)-mixed18, 9, 14, 5, 5, 5YesYes21823158
Rankin et al 2011(bvFTD)-CBD, (bvFTD)-Pick’s5, 5YesYes21881831
Rohrer et al 2011Pick’s, MAPT, CBD, TDP43A, TDP43C9, 6, 5, 6, 12YesNo21908872
Whitwell et al 2011a(typical)-AD, (atypical)-AD, FTLD14, 14, 14YesYes19914744
Whitwell et al 2011bPick’s, CBD, TDP43A5, 5, 5YesYes21556732
Boxer et al 2012NA—FTLD and AD correlations with saccade parameters37NANA22491196
Hornberger et al 2012(bvFTD)-FTLD, AD19, 18YesNo23012333
Khan et al 2012(slowly progressive bvFTD)-C9ORF722YesNo22399793
Mahoney et al 2012C9ORF72, MAPT, GRN11, 11, 8YesYes22366791
Whitwell et al 2012aNA—bvFTD groups defined based on frontal lobe symmetry80NANA22502999
Whitwell et al 2012bMAPT, GRN, C9ORF72, FTLD25, 12, 19, 12YesYes22366795
Whitwell et al 2012ctypical AD, hippocampal-sparing AD, limbic-predominant AD125, 19, 33YesYes22951070
Cash, Ridgway et al 2013(presymptomatic)-familial AD, (symptomatic)-familial AD69, 50YesYes24049139
Caso et al 2013Pick’s1YesNo22713404
Coon et al 2013FTLD-MND2YesNo22051030
Scahill et al 2013APP, PSEN110, 18YesYes23380992
Toledo et al 2013AD, AD+MTL, AD+DLB, AD+DLB+MTL7, 5, 6, 4NoYes24252435
Josephs et al 2013a(typical)-AD, (lvPPA)-AD20, 10YesNo23541297
Josephs et al 2013bCSTD-positive TDPC, CSTD-equivocal TDPC, CSTD-negative TDPC2, 5, 5YesYes23358603
Murray et al 2013NA—DLB groups defined by presence of REM sleep behaviour disorder75NANA24107861
Caso et al 2014(nfvPPA)-tau, (nfvPPA)-TDP439, 2YesNo24353332
Henry et al 2014TDP43C1YesNo23171151
Josephs2014TDP43-positive AD, TDP43-negative AD195, 147YesYes24659241
Nedelska et al 2015DLB, DLB-AD, AD20, 22, 30YesYes25128280
Ossenkoppele et al 2015(behavioural/dysexecutive)-AD, (typical)-AD, (bvFTD)-FTLD24, 17, 12, 8, 21YesYes26141491
Sala-Llonch et al 2015Symptomatic-PSEN1, asymptomatic-PSEN111, 13YesNo25638532
Shingawa et al 2015NA—C9ORF72 groups were defined based on the presence of delusions17NANA25342578
  • Parentheses indicate additional clinical features or diagnosis. The number of pathology cases is listed per defined pathology group.

  • AD, Alzheimer’s disease; APP, amyloid precursor protein mutation carriers; bvFTD, behavioural variant FTD; C9ORF72, chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 mutation carriers; CBD, corticobasal degeneration; CBS, corticobasal syndrome; CTSD, corticospinal tract degeneration;  DLB, dementia with Lewy bodies; FTD, frontotemporal dementia; FTLD, frontotemporal lobar degeneration; FTLD-MND, FTLD with motor neuron disease; FTLD-U, FTLD with ubiquitin-positive (tau-synuclein-negative and alpha-synuclein-negative) inclusions;  GRN, progranulin mutation carriers; MAPT, microtubule-associated protein tau mutation carriers; MTL, medial temporal lobe pathology; NA, not applicable; nfvPPA, non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia; PSEN1 , presenilin-1 mutation carriers; PSP, progressive supranuclear palsy; TDP43, transactive response DNA-binding protein 43.