Table 1

Clinical characteristics of study participants

Normal control
(n=34)
PD
(n=80)
PD (n=80)
PD with normal cognition
(n=30)
PD-MCI
(n=21)
PDD
(n=29)
p Value
Age (years)61.9±9.569.6±12.360.7±10.668.9±11.179.9±5.5p<0.01**
Gender (male, %)48.552.248.357.257.8p=0.10
Education (years)11.8±1.813.1±2.213.1±2.213.4±1.812.8±2.6p=0.46
Disease duration (years)N.A.7.5±5.24.6±2.38.1±6.39.2±7.3p=0.03*
MMSE29.2±0.824.3±5.728.7±0.925.3±1.817.8±5.4p<0.01**
Hoehn-Yahr stage (on)N.A.1.8±0.91.4±0.81.6±0.82.3±1.0p=0.01*
Hoehn-Yahr stage (off)N.A.2.6±1.12.3±1.12.5±0.93.3±1.1p=0.01*
UPDRS part III (on)N.A.17.4±9.613.9±7.517.6±10.121.8±9.9p=0.02*
UPDRS part III (off)N.A.32.4±13.927.7±12.832.8±15.338.3±12.5p=0.03*
NMSS (on)N.A.32.4±13.936.9±7.431.5±6.232.1±14.3p=0.55
SCOPA-AUT (on)N.A.10.7±6.812.4±2.19.9±5.610.9±6.90.7p=0.49
  • Numbers are expressed as mean±SD.

  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01. The p values were analysed by parametric t-test.

  • MCI, mild cognitive impairment; MMSE, Mini-Mental Status Examination; N.A., not available; NMSS, Non-Motor Symptom Assessment Scale; PD, Parkinson’s disease; PDD, Parkinson’s disease with dementia; SCOPA-AUT, The Scale for Outcomes in PD for Autonomic Symptoms; UPDRS, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale.