Table 1

Features of double-positive patients reported in the literature

Demographics
 Age (mean, range)46.7, 2–86
 Male gender, %28 M, 76% (n=37)
Clinical presentationn (%) with feature*
 Morvan’s syndrome20/37 (54)
 Limbic encephalitis3/38 (8)
 Tumour16/35 (46)
 Thymoma12/34 (35)
 Myasthenia gravis7/25 (28)
 Death3/21 (14)
Peripheral nerve features
 NMT/PNH27/37 (73)
 Pain/paraesthesia21/34 (62)
 Peripheral neuropathy12/31 (39)
Autonomic features
 Any dysautonomia27/32 (84)
 Hyperhidrosis22/30 (73)
 Tachycardia/arrhythmia9/16 (56)
 BP abnormalities7/23 (30)
 Sexual dysfunction1/15 (7)
 Gastrointestinal7/28 (25)
 Urinary5/25 (20)
Sleep
 Insomnia20/28 (71)
Neuropsychiatric
 Any20/23 (87)
 Disorientation/confusion/CI17/38 (45)
 Amnesia7/19 (37)
 Hallucinations12/22 (55)
 Agitation/anxiety/depression10/28 (36)
 Delusions3/18 (17)
Seizures
 Any8/39 (21)
 GTCS5/31 (16)
 FBDS/myoclonus3/31 (10)
 Focal/partial1/31 (3)
 Paroxysmal dizziness1/24 (4)
Systemic
 Weight loss7/17 (41)
 Skin lesions/itch/flush4/16 (25)
 Respiratory failure3/19 (16)
Investigations
 Normal brain MRI16/17 (94)
 Normal CSF6/15 (40)
 Serum hyponatraemia8/29 (28)
  • Demographic and clinical features of 46 double-positive patients described in the literature from 13 papers. *From the published reports, not all features could be evaluated in all patients, so the denominator varies between features. Additional information, not reported in the publication, was included for the 15 patients with double-positive Morvan’s syndrome in Irani et al13 and may weight this analysis towards features of Morvan’s syndrome.

  • BP, blood pressure; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; CI, cognitive impairment; FBDS, faciobrachial dystonic seizures; GTCS, generalised tonic clonic seizure; NMT, neuromyotonia; PNH, peripheral nerve hyperexcitability.