Observations have been made on motor conduction velocity in the tibial nerve of rats given 35% myoinositol in the diet. Comparison between the values before and with up to nine weeks of dosing revealed no alteration in conduction velocity. In such animals, the free myoinositol content in the sciatic nerve was increased; there was no detectable alteration in the lipid inositol concentration. In a second series of experiments, tibial motor nerve conduction velocity in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes was compared with conduction velocity in diabetic animals given 1% supplementary dietary myoinositol, and with a control group of nondiabetic rats. Conduction velocity was reduced in the diabetic animals, but no influence from the added dietary myoinositol was detected. No statistically significantly difference in sciatic nerve myoinositol was demonstrated, but the sorbitol and fructose concentrations were increased. Those animals fed the myoinositol supplement had a significantly lower lipid inositol content. The significance of these findings is discussed.