Both stroke and transient cerebral ischaemic attacks occurring in younger patients may be due to systemic lupus erythematosus. Other clinical features of the disease may be absent. Initially the ESR may be normal, as may serological tests. Seizures may occur at or near the time of the vascular events. Systemic lupus erythematosus may be the cause of an asymptomatic cerebral infarct or multi-infarct dementia.