The odds ratio is very useful; when used as a measure of association (or to describe the results of a randomised controlled treatment trial) it expresses both the strength and direction of the association (or size and direction of treatment effect). Its 95% confidence interval estimates the likely degree of sampling error and provides a test of significance at the 5% level. Authors, when reporting the results of descriptive studies, case-control studies and randomised controlled trials, should consider presenting their results this way rather than by simple significance testing with a chi squared test.
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