A postmortem case of HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM)/tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) with a history of remission and exacerbation of neurological signs and symptoms, resembling those of multiple sclerosis is reported. MRI analysis revealed lesions in the periventricular white matter in addition to atrophy of the thoracic spinal cord, characteristic of HAM/TSP. The cerebral periventricular areas consisted of ill-defined paucity of myelin sheaths with astrocytic gliosis and hyaline thickening of blood vessels. The poorly demarcated white matter lesions found in both brain and spinal cord were different from plaques found in multiple sclerosis. It is suggested that, in some cases of HAM/TSP, inflammatory lesions that destroy myelin can involve not only the spinal cord but also the cerebral periventricular white matter.
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