Three patients with hemiballism-hemichorea caused by non-ketotic hyperglycaemia are presented, two of whom had hyperosmolar non-ketotic hyperglycaemic syndrome. In two of the three patients, the hyperkinesia was the initial presenting symptom of their diabetes mellitus. The hypersensitivity of the postmenopausal dopamine receptor, decreased gamma-aminobutyric acid in the brain in non-ketotic hyperglycaemia, coexisting lacunar infarct in the basal ganglion, and pre-existing metabolic dysfunction in the basal ganglion may all have played a part in the pathogenesis of this movement disorder.
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