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Retrograde temporal order amnesia resulting from damage to the fornix
  1. Fumihiko Yasunoa,c,
  2. Masayuki Hiratab,
  3. Hiroshi Takimotod,
  4. Masaaki Taniguchib,
  5. Yoshitsugu Nakagawaa,
  6. Yoshitaka Ikejiria,
  7. Takashi Nishikawaa,
  8. Kazuhito Shinozakia,
  9. Hirotaka Tanabee,
  10. Yoshiro Sugitac,
  11. Masatoshi Takedaa
  1. aDepartment of Neuropsychiatry, bDepartment of Neurosurgery, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Osaka, Japan, cMedical Science for Health, 3rd Division, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan, dDepartment of Neurosurgery, Suita Municipal Hospital, Suita, Osaka, Japan, eDepartment of Neuropsychiatry, Ehime University School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan
  1. Dr Fumihiko Yasuno, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Osaka University Medical School, 2–2 Yamadaoka, Suita, 565, Japan. Telephone 0081 6 879 3058; fax 0081 6 879 3059.


Some amnesic patients show an impairment of temporal order memory that cannot be accounted for by content memory deficits. The performance of an amnesic patient on memory tasks assessing the patient’s content and temporal memories for remotely acquired material is described, after a lesion including the bilateral anterior fornix and adjacent anterior thalamus. The patient displayed a deficit in the temporal order tasks for remotely acquired information. Neither frontal cognitive deficits nor recognition deficits can account for this patient’s poor temporal memory. This retrograde temporal order memory impairment without content memory deficits were not seen in previously reported thalamic amnesic patients. Accordingly, the present patient’s poor retrograde temporal memory could hardly be explained by only a thalamic lesion. It is concluded that the patient’s impairment of temporal order memory for the retrograde material is probably due to the direct disconnection between the frontal lobe and the hippocampus by disruption of the fornix.

  • fornix
  • thalamus
  • amnesia
  • temporal order

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