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Unusual muscle pathology in McLeod syndrome

Abstract

Muscle pathology in McLeod syndrome is usually mild; patchy necrotic or regenerating fibres, occasional internal nuclei, and the absence of an inflammatory cell infiltrate are the usual findings. We report on a 29 year old man presenting with chronic fatiguability and excessive sweating in whom an open quadriceps muscle biopsy demonstrated grouped necrotic fibres accompanied by striking patchy mononuclear cell infiltrates. The diagnosis of McLeod syndrome was made on the basis of red blood cell acanthocytosis, raised serum creatine kinase, and weak expression of Kell blood group antigens. The quadriceps muscle infiltrate consisted principally of histologically typical macrophages. These cells had prominent nucleoli, displayed numerous mitoses, and were strongly CD68+. A small population of typical CD3+, CD43+ lymphocytes was also present. In addition, a small population of large atypical CD3+ cells was noted. Immunoperoxidase stains for CD20, CD30, CD79a, and CD56 were negative. Immunocytochemical studies for the common muscular dystrophies were normal. The muscle biopsy findings highlight a potential for confusion of this condition with idiopathic polymyositis. The expanding range of muscle pathology reported in McLeod syndrome, to which this case adds, may reflect variable involvement of the XKgene on chromosome Xp21, or of the adjacent loci of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and chronic granulomatous disease.

  • McLeod syndrome
  • myopathy
  • muscle biopsy

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