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Human cellular inflammation in the pathology of acute cerebral ischaemia

Abstract

Leucocytes form important effector pathways for inflammation. This article reviews the clinical evidence for the presence of a cellular inflammatory response in cerebral ischaemia, and attempts to define its temporal profile and spatial distribution. The processes involved in recruitment and activation of leucocytes in this context are addressed, and the successes and failures of interventions aimed at these processes discussed.

  • stroke
  • ischaemia
  • leucocytes
  • chemokines
  • adhesion molecules
  • CINC, cytokine induced neutrophil chemoattractant
  • ELISA, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
  • HMPAO, hexamethylpropylene amine oxime
  • ICAM, intercellular adhesion molecule
  • IL, interleukin
  • MCP, monocyte chemoattractant protein
  • MIP, macrophage inflammatory protein
  • MMP, matrix metalloproteinase
  • NAP, neutrophil activating protein
  • PBBS, peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding site
  • PET, positron emission tomography
  • PSGL, P-selectin glycoproteins ligand
  • RANTES, regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted
  • RNA, ribonucleic acid
  • SDF, stromal cell derived factor
  • SLC, secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine
  • SPECT, single photon emission tomography
  • TIA, transient ischaemic attack
  • TNF, tumour necrosis factor
  • VCAM, vascular cell adhesion molecule

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