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Long term survival after primary intracerebral haemorrhage: a retrospective population based study
  1. R Fogelholm1,
  2. K Murros2,
  3. A Rissanen3,
  4. S Avikainen3
  1. 1Department of Neurology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
  2. 2Department of Neurology, Jorvi Hospital, Jorvi, Finland
  3. 3Department of Neurology, Central Hospital of Central Finland, Finland
  1. Correspondence to:
 Dr Rainer Fogelholm
 Pappilantie 10 B 8, 02400 Kirkkonummi, Finland;


Objectives: To determine the long term survival and predictors of death in patients with primary intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) in Central Finland.

Methods: Data were collected retrospectively on all adult patients with first ever ICH in Central Finland county between September 1985 and December 1991. The survival of all patients at the end of December 2002 was investigated. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were constructed and factors associated with both early (⩽28 days) and late deaths determined. Long term survival was compared with the general Finnish population of the same age and sex distribution. The causes of death were compared with those of the population of Central Finland.

Results: 411 patients with first ever ICH were identified, 199 men (mean age 64.9 years) and 212 women (mean age 69.5); 30 died before hospital admission, and 208 (50.6%) within the first 28 days. In Kaplan–Meier analysis, at 16 years the cumulative survival was 3.2% for men and 9.8% for women. The 28 day survivors had a 4.5-fold increased annual risk of dying during the first year after ICH, and 2.2-fold during years 2 to 6. On admission, significant independent predictors of death within the first four weeks were unconsciousness, lateral shift of cerebral midline structures, mean arterial pressure ⩾134 mm Hg, hyperglycaemia, anticoagulant treatment, and ventricular extrasystoles. Predictors of late death for the 28 day survivors were old age, male sex, and heart failure.

Conclusions: Primary intracerebral haemorrhage has a poor short and long term outcome. The results emphasise the importance of primary and secondary prevention for ICH.

  • ICH, intracerebral haemorrhage
  • MAP, mean arterial blood pressure
  • primary intracerebral haemorrhage
  • predictor
  • long term survival

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  • Competing interests: none declared