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S-100B and neuron specific enolase are poor outcome predictors in severe traumatic brain injury treated by an intracranial pressure targeted therapy
  1. M Olivecrona1,
  2. M Rodling-Wahlström2,
  3. S Naredi2,
  4. L-O D Koskinen1
  1. 1
    Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neurosciences, Division of Neurosurgery, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden
  2. 2
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Division of Anaesthesiology, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden
  1. Correspondence to Dr M Olivecrona, Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, SE 901 85 Umeå, Sweden; magnus.olivecrona{at}


Objective: To prospectively study S-100B and neuron specific enolase (NSE) levels in subjects treated for severe head injury (sTBI), and investigate the prognostic value of these biomarkers.

Methods: Subjects included in a prospective double blind randomised study for sTBI. Inclusion criteria: Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) ⩽8, age 15–70 years, first recorded cerebral perfusion pressure of >10 mm Hg and arrival <24 h after trauma. Subjects were treated with an intracranial pressure (ICP) targeted therapy. Blood samples for S-100B and NSE were drawn immediately after arrival and every 12 h for 5 days. Outcome was evaluated as Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) by independent staff at 3 and 12 months.

Results: 48 subjects, mean age 35.5 years, and median GCS 6 were included. The first blood sample was drawn at 15.6 (1.4) h after injury. Initial concentration of S-100B was 1.04 (0.21) μg/l and for NSE 18.94 (2.32) μg/l. The biomarkers were significantly higher in subjects with GCS 3 and in those who died compared with those with GCS 4–8 and GOS 2–5, respectively. Receiver operated characteristic curve analyses of the initial S-100B and NSE levels to GOS dichotomised as unfavourable (GOS 1–3) and favourable (GOS 4–5) showed a weak correlation: AUC 0.585 and 0.555, respectively. Using the dichotomisation dead (GOS 1)/alive (GOS 2–5), the AUC values were 0.687 and 0.734, respectively. Furthermore, a correlation was found between the biomarkers themselves and the biomarkers and ICP.

Conclusion: At 3 and 12 months after trauma, no differences in prognostic values between the markers were apparent nor was there any clinical significant value of the markers as predictors of clinical outcome.

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  • Funding This study was financially supported by the Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University Hospital Research Found, Tore Nilsson Foundation, Kempe Foundation and Capio Research Foundation.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Ethics approval The study was approved by the local ethics committee at Umeå University Hospital (dnr 00–175).

  • Provenance and Peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.