Background: In patients with acute ischaemic stroke and hyperglycaemia, prolonged strict glycaemic control may improve clinical outcome. The question is how to achieve this prolonged strict glycaemic control. In this study, the efficacy and safety of two regimens with different basal to meal related insulin ratio are described.
Methods: 33 patients with ischaemic stroke and hyperglycaemia at admission were randomised in an open design to receive: (1) conventional glucose lowering therapy, (2) strict glucose control with predominantly basal insulin using intravenous insulin or (3) strict glucose control with predominantly meal related insulin using subcutaneous insulin in the first 5 days after stroke. The target range of glucose control for the last two groups was 4.4–6.1 mmol/l. 16 consecutive patients without hyperglycaemia at admission were included to serve as normoglycaemic controls.
Results: The median area under the curve (AUC) in the meal related insulin group was 386 mmol/l×58 h (range 286–662) for days 2–5, and did not differ from the hyperglycaemic control group (median AUC 444 mmol/l×58 h; range 388–620). There was also no difference in median AUC of the basal insulin group (453 mmol/l×58 h, range 347–629) and the hyperglycaemic control group on days 2–5. In the first 12 hours, glucose profiles were lower in the groups treated with strict glucose control; median AUC was 90 mmol/l×12 h (range 77–189) for the hyperglycaemic control group versus 81 mmol/l×12 h (range 60–118) for the meal related insulin group (p = 0.03) and 74 mmol/l×12 h (range 52–97) for the basal insulin group (p = 0.008).
Conclusion: In intermittently fed ischaemic stroke patients, strict glycaemic control between day 2 and day 5 with two different basal bolus regimens did not result in lower glucose profiles due to postprandial hyperglycaemia. Continuous enteral feeding may therefore be needed to achieve prolonged strict glycaemic control in acute stroke patients.
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Funding This study was partly sponsored by an unrestricted grant from Sanofi-Aventis.
Competing interests None.
Ethics approval The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee of the Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, and the University Medical Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands.