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  1. S Hughes1–37,*,
  2. T Spelman1–37,
  3. O Gray1–37,
  4. C Boz1–37,
  5. M Trojano1–37,
  6. C Zwanikken1–37,
  7. A Lugaresi1–37,
  8. J Izquierdo1–37,
  9. P Duquette1–37,
  10. M Girard1–37,
  11. F Grand'Maison1–37,
  12. P Grammond1–37,
  13. C Oreja-Guevara1–37,
  14. R Hupperts1–37,
  15. T Petersen1–37,
  16. R Bergamaschi1–37,
  17. G Giuliani1–37,
  18. J Lechner-Scott1–37,
  19. M Barnett1–37,
  20. M Edite Rio1–37,
  21. V van Pesch1–37,
  22. M Pia Amato1–37,
  23. G Iuliano1–37,
  24. M Fiol1–37,
  25. M Slee1–37,
  26. F Verheul1–37,
  27. E Cristiano1–37,
  28. R Fernández Bolaños1–37,
  29. D Saladino1–37,
  30. M Poehlau1–37,
  31. N Deri1–37,
  32. W Oleschko Arruda,
  33. J Cabrera-Gomez,
  34. M Paine1–37,
  35. N Vella1–37,
  36. J Herbert1–37,
  37. E Skromne1–37,
  38. A Savino1–37,
  39. C Shaw1–37,
  40. F Moore1–37,
  41. S Vucic1–37,
  42. T Petkovska-Boskova1–37,
  43. S Vetere1–37,
  44. G McDonnell1–37,
  45. S Hawkins1–37,
  46. F Kee1–37,
  47. H Butzkueven1–38
  1. 1Department of Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria, Australia
  2. 2Department of Neurology, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, UK
  3. 3UKCRC Centre of Excellence for Public Health Research, Queen's University Belfast, UK
  4. 4Ulster Hospital, Upper Newtownards Road, Dundonald, Belfast, UK
  5. 5Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey
  6. 6University of Bari, Bari, Italy
  7. 7University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands
  8. 8MS Center, Department of Neuroscience and Imaging, University ‘G. d'Annunzio’, Chieti, Italy
  9. 9Hospital Universitario, Sevilla, Spain
  10. 10Hopital Notre Dame, Montreal, Canada
  11. 11Neuro Rive-Sud, Quebec, Canada
  12. 12Hotel-Dieu de Levis, Quebec, Canada
  13. 13Hospital Universitario Clínico San Carlos, IdISSC, Madrid, Spain
  14. 14Maaslandziekenhuis, Sittard, The Netherlands
  15. 15Kommunehospitalet, Aarhus C, Denmark
  16. 16C. Mondino National Institute of Neurology Foundation, IRCCS, Pavia, Italy
  17. 17Ospedale di Macerata, Macerata, Italy
  18. 18John Hunter Hospital, New South Wales, Australia
  19. 19Brain and Mind Research Institute, New South Wales, Australia
  20. 20Hospital S. Joao, Porto, Portugal
  21. 21Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Brussels, Belgium
  22. 22Department of Neurology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
  23. 23Ospedali Riuniti di Salerno, Salerno, Italy
  24. 24FLENI, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  25. 25Flinders Medical Centre, South Australia, Australia
  26. 26Groen Hart Ziekenhuis, Gouda, The Netherlands
  27. 27Hospital Italiano, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  28. 28Hospital Universitario Virgen de Valme, Seville, Spain
  29. 29Multiple Sclerosis Centre Kamillus-Klinik, Asbach, Germany
  30. 30INEBA, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  31. 31Hospital Fernandez, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  32. 32Instituta de Neurologica de Curibita, Curibita, Brazil
  33. 33Centro Internacional de Restauracion Neurologica, Havana, Cuba
  34. 34St Vincents Hospital, Victoria, Australia
  35. 35Mater Dei Hospital, Msida, Malta
  36. 36New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, USA
  37. 37Hospital de Especialidades. Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Mexico
  38. 38Consultorio Privado, Buenos Aires, Argentina


    Background Pregnancy counselling is an important aspect of the care of women of childbearing age who have multiple sclerosis (MS). The issue of cessation of interferon therapy for conception and pregnancy still provokes debate within the MS community, given conflicting study findings. Here we present a review of the literature.

    Methods A literature search was performed for studies examining the effect of interferon-β therapy on pregnancy outcomes in women with MS. This returned 12 eligible studies, reviewed by two independent reviewers.

    Results In six studies data was collected retrospectively, prospectively in five studies and by both methods in one study and included a total of 1105 pregnancies ‘exposed’ to interferon. In 10 studies, there was no increase in the rate of spontaneous abortion or birth defects. Interpretation of studies finding a higher than expected rate of spontaneous abortion was limited by inadequate sample sizes.

    Conclusions We found 1105 pregnancies in which the effect of interferon exposure was examined in women with MS. There is no evidence of unfavourable pregnancy outcomes in the majority of studies. Given the lack of proven adverse effects with interferon therapy in early pregnancy, neurologists could safely advise females with MS to continue treatment when planning conception.

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