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Neurological picture
Periventricular heterotopia in refractory epilepsy
  1. Anna Cristina Christopher1,
  2. Kurien Koshy2
  1. 1 Department of Medicine, Launceston General Hospital, Tasmania, Australia
  2. 2 Department of Neurology, Launceston General Hospital, Tasmania, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Kurien Koshy, Department of Neurology, Launceston General Hospital, Neurology Charles St. Launceston, Tasmania 7250, Australia; drkkoshy{at}

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Malformations of cortical development (MCD) are well associated with chronic epilepsy.1 MCD includes a variety of developmental disorders including periventricular heterotopia, focal cortical dysplasia, polymicrogyria, subcortical heterotopia and lissencephaly.2

We report a 32-year-old female seen in our outpatient clinics with a long history of refractory seizures since the age of 17. Her seizure semiology was in keeping with primary generalised tonic clonic seizures. She had been tried on various anti-epileptic monotherapies but had only brief periods of remission. …

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  • Contributors Patient consent was obtained by ACC. ACC was given the case history for writing and this was edited by KK. Further editing as per Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry editors was done by ACC and reviewed by KK. Responses to the criticisms by the journal's editors were written by ACC. The points for reference (main article with superscripts) were highlighted by KK. Sourcing of the references was done by ACC. Images were obtained by KK and ACC. Transcription of images to the correct format was done by KK.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.