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Non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the human cerebral cortex, particularly the motor areas, has now been developed to the stage at which it is possible to evaluate in vivo glutamatergic, cholinergic and GABAergic circuits of the human brain.1 In addition, repetitive stimulation with TMS produces long-lasting changes in the excitability of central motor circuits that are thought to be caused by early stages of synaptic long-term potentiation/depression, thus providing for the first time the opportunity to explore plasticity in the conscious human brain.2 ,3 The TMS paradigm termed short latency afferent inhibition (SAI), based on coupling peripheral nerve stimulation with cortical TMS, provides information on central cholinergic circuits: SAI is abolished by anticholinergic drugs in healthy subjects,4 is reduced in cholinergic forms …
Competing interests None.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Correction notice This article has been corrected since it was published Online First. The title has been changed from ‘In vivo functional evaluation and modulation of cerebral cortex circuits in patients with CADASIL using transcranial magnetic stimulation related techniques: possible diagnostic value and correlation with neuropsychological findings’ to ‘In vivo assessment of cortical circuitry in CADASIL – a novel biomarker?’