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Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in parkinsonian conditions: an update and future directions
  1. Nadia Magdalinou1,
  2. Andrew J Lees1,
  3. Henrik Zetterberg1,2
  1. 1Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK
  2. 2Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden
  1. Correspondence to Dr Nadia Magdalinou, Reta Lila Weston Institute, UCL Institute of Neurology, 1 Wakefiled Street, London WC1N 1PJ, UK; n.magdalinou{at}


Parkinsonian diseases comprise a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders, which show significant clinical and pathological overlap. Accurate diagnosis still largely relies on clinical acumen; pathological diagnosis remains the gold standard. There is an urgent need for biomarkers to diagnose parkinsonian disorders, particularly in the early stages when diagnosis is most difficult. In this review, several of the most promising cerebrospinal fluid candidate markers will be discussed. Their strengths and limitations will be considered together with future developments in the field.

  • CSF
  • Parkinson's Disease
  • Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
  • Multiple System Atrophy
  • Corticobasal Degeneration

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