Introduction Limbic encephalitis associated with voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies (VGKC-LE) is becoming increasingly recognised. However, only a few case series have been reported with the clinical phenotype known to vary widely. We aimed to establish a case series of patients with positive VGKC antibodies to investigate their clinical, radiological and biochemical features.
Methods All patients with a positive VGKC antibody result from University Hospital of Wales up until June 2012 were identified. Medical records were subsequently reviewed and data collected using a standardised proforma.
Results 25 patients were identified. Clinical presentations included memory impairment (76%), seizures (56%), confusion (52%), behavioural changes (36%), and sleep disturbances (24%). 6 patients presented with hyponatraemia. 10 patients had a diagnosis of VGKC-LE although 15 patients satisfied the diagnostic criteria. A number of other diagnoses were associated with positive antibodies including CJD and frontotemporal dementia. MRI mainly demonstrated changes in the temporal region. All patients that received immunotherapy (n=12) made some improvement.
Conclusion We show that the majority of patients with positive VGKC antibodies satisfy the diagnosis for VGKC-LE but antibodies may also be present in a range of other diagnoses.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.