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Ultrasound in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy: structure meets function in the neuromuscular clinic
  1. Elena Gallardo1,2,
  2. Yu-ichi Noto3,
  3. Neil G Simon4,5
  1. 1Service of Radiology, University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla; Instituto de Investigación Marqués de Valdecilla (IDIVAL), Santander, Spain
  2. 2University of Cantabria (UC); and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Santander, Spain
  3. 3Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Japan
  4. 4Prince of Wales Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Australia
  5. 5Central Clinical School, The University of Sydney, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Neil G Simon, Prince of Wales Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Australia; n.simon{at}


Peripheral nerve ultrasound (US) has emerged as a promising technique for the diagnosis of peripheral nerve disorders. While most experience with US has been reported in the context of nerve entrapment syndromes, the role of US in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy (PN) has recently been explored. Distinctive US findings have been reported in patients with hereditary, immune-mediated, infectious and axonal PN; US may add complementary information to neurophysiological studies in the diagnostic work-up of PN. This review describes the characteristic US findings in PN reported to date and a classification of abnormal nerve US patterns in PN is proposed. Closer scrutiny of nerve abnormalities beyond assessment of nerve calibre may allow for more accurate diagnostic classification of PN, as well as contribute to the understanding of the intersection of structure and function in PN.

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