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Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterised by encephalopathy and other neurological manifestations. ADEM is a heterogeneous syndrome predominantly found in the paediatric population. ADEM usually takes a monophasic course, but some patients have a relapsing disease. Patients diagnosed with ADEM have multifocal CNS lesions including of the spinal cord and/or optic nerves. Therefore, ADEM should be distinguished from other diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). …
Contributors TM drafted the original manuscript. DKS, IN and KF added comments. TM, DKS and KF negotiated to finalise the last draft for submission.
Funding This work was supported in part by grants-in-aid for scientific research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology and the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan (No. 24591247).
Competing interests None.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.