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Research paper
Subtypes of mild cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease: evidence from the LANDSCAPE study
  1. Elke Kalbe1,
  2. Sarah Petra Rehberg1,
  3. Ines Heber2,
  4. Martin Kronenbuerger2,
  5. Jörg B Schulz2,3,
  6. Alexander Storch4,5,
  7. Katharina Linse4,
  8. Christine Schneider4,
  9. Susanne Gräber6,
  10. Inga Liepelt-Scarfone6,
  11. Daniela Berg6,7,
  12. Judith Dams8,
  13. Monika Balzer-Geldsetzer8,
  14. Rüdiger Hilker9,
  15. Carola Oberschmidt9,
  16. Karsten Witt7,
  17. Nele Schmidt7,
  18. Brit Mollenhauer10,
  19. Claudia Trenkwalder10,
  20. Annika Spottke11,
  21. Sandra Roeske11,
  22. Hans-Ulrich Wittchen12,
  23. Oliver Riedel13,
  24. Richard Dodel8
  1. 1Medical Psychology, Neuropsychology and Gender Studies, Center for Neuropsychological Diagnostics and Intervention (CeNDI), University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany
  2. 2Department of Neurology, University Hospital, RWTH University Aachen, Aachen, Germany
  3. 3JARA Brain Institute 2, RWTH University and Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany
  4. 4Division of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Department of Neurology, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany
  5. 5Department of Neurology, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
  6. 6German Center of Neurodegenerative Diseases and Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, Tübingen, Germany
  7. 7Department of Neurology, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel, Germany
  8. 8Department of Neurology, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, Germany
  9. 9Department of Neurology, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt/Main, Germany
  10. 10Paracelsus-Elena Clinic, Centre of Parkinsonism and Movement Disorders, Kassel, Germany
  11. 11Department of Neurology, University Hospital Bonn, and German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Bonn, Germany
  12. 12Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany
  13. 13Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology, Bremen, Germany
  1. Correspondence to Professor Elke Kalbe, Medical Psychology | Neuropsychology and Gender Studies, Center for Neuropsychological Diagnostics and Intervention (CeNDI), University Hospital Cologne, Kerpener Str. 68, Cologne D-50937, Germany; elke.kalbe{at}


Objective Inconsistent results exist regarding the cognitive profile in patients with Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI). We aimed at providing data on this topic from a large cohort of patients with PD-MCI.

Methods Sociodemographic, clinical and neuropsychological baseline data from patients with PD-MCI recruited in the multicentre, prospective, observational DEMPARK/LANDSCAPE study were analysed.

Results 269 patients with PD-MCI (age 67.8±7.4, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III) scores 23.2±11.6) were included. PD-MCI subtypes were 39.4% non-amnestic single domain, 30.5% amnestic multiple domain, 23.4% non-amnestic multiple domain and 6.7% amnestic single domain. Executive functions were most frequently impaired. The most sensitive tests to detect cognitive dysfunctions were the Modified Card Sorting Test, digit span backwards and word list learning direct recall. Multiple stepwise regression analyses showed that global cognition, gender and age, but not education or disease-related parameters predicted PD-MCI subtypes.

Conclusions This study with the so far largest number of prospectively recruited patients with PD-MCI indicates that non-amnestic PD-MCI is more frequent than amnestic PD-MCI; executive dysfunctions are the most typical cognitive symptom in PD-MCI; and age, gender and global cognition predict the PD-MCI subtype. Longitudinal data are needed to test the hypothesis that patients with PD-MCI with specific cognitive profiles have different risks to develop dementia.


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