Objectives We have undertaken a clinic-based survey of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) in Australia and New Zealand to establish incidence and prevalence across the region and in populations of differing ancestry.
Background NMOSD is a recently defined demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The incidence and prevalence of NMOSD in Australia and New Zealand has not been established.
Methods Centres managing patients with demyelinating disease of the CNS across Australia and New Zealand reported patients with clinical and laboratory features that were suspicious for NMOSD. Testing for aquaporin 4 antibodies was undertaken in all suspected cases. From this group, cases were identified who fulfilled the 2015 Wingerchuk diagnostic criteria for NMOSD. A capture–recapture methodology was used to estimate incidence and prevalence, based on additional laboratory identified cases.
Results NMOSD was confirmed in 81/170 (48%) cases referred. Capture–recapture analysis gave an adjusted incidence estimate of 0.37 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.39) per million per year and a prevalence estimate for NMOSD of 0.70 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.78) per 100 000. NMOSD was three times more common in the Asian population (1.57 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.98) per 100 000) compared with the remainder of the population (0.57 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.65) per 100 000). The latitudinal gradient evident in multiple sclerosis was not seen in NMOSD.
Conclusions NMOSD incidence and prevalence in Australia and New Zealand are comparable with figures from other populations of largely European ancestry. We found NMOSD to be more common in the population with Asian ancestry.
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Contributors DA, MHB, SBh, SBl, MBo, KB, BJB, SAB, MBr, WBr, HB, WMC, CC, AC, RCD, CD, KD, DG, SHa, RH, APDH, SHo, AGK, TJK, JK, CK, JL-S, CL, RALM, MPMa, DFM, PAMcC, CO’G, JPa, JPe, JDP, KMP, SWR, CS, MS, JSp, JSt, IS, BVT, AV, SV, MWa, PW, EW, RJW and RCW conceived and designed the study. SAB, WBu, CSB, LC, KD, MJF-P, DG, SHe, SJ-S, M-WL, KMP, RS, JSt, BVT, PW, RJW, MWo and EMY conducted the analyses. SAB prepared the initial draft and MHB, BJB, WBu, WMC, RCD, KD, MJF-P, DF, APDH, SHo, AJK, JL-S, M-WL, MPMa, PAMcC, MPMe, KMP, RS, MS, BVT, AV, SV, MWa, PW, EW, RJW, RCW, MWo and EMY contributed to revisions. All authors approved the final draft.
Funding This project was undertaken by the Australia and New Zealand Neuromyelitis Optica (ANZ NMO) Collaboration and was supported by funding from Multiple Sclerosis Research Australia, the Brain Foundation, Griffith University and the Gold Coast Hospital Foundation. The work in Oxford was supported by the National Health Service National Specialised Commissioning Group for Neuromyelitis Optica and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre.
Competing interests MHB has received honoraria for participation in advisory boards and travel sponsorship from Novartis, BioCSL, Genzyme and Biogen Idec. MBo has received travel sponsorship and honoraria from Sanofi-Genzyme, Teva, Novartis, BiogenIdec and Roche. BJB has received honoraria as a board member for GlaxoSmithKline, Biogen Idec, ViiV Healthcare and Merck Serono, has received speaker honoraria from ViiV Healthcare, Boehringer Ingelheim, Abbott, AbbVie and Biogen Idec, has received travel sponsorship from Abbott and ViiV Healthcare and has received research support funding from EIi Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, ViiV Healthcare and Merck Serono. SAB has received honoraria for attendance at advisory boards and travel sponsorship from Bayer Schering Pharma, BiogenIdec, Merck Serono, Novartis and Sanofi-Genzyme, has received speaker honoraria from Biogen Idec and Genzyme, is an investigator in clinical trials sponsored by Biogen Idec, Novartis and Genzyme and was the recipient of an unencumbered research grant from Biogen Idec. HB has received honoraria for serving on scientific advisory boards for Biogen Idec, Novartis and Sanofi-Genzyme, has received conference travel sponsorship from Novartis and Biogen Idec, has received honoraria for speaking and acting as Chair at educational events organised by Novartis, Biogen Idec, Medscape and Merck Serono, serves on steering committees for trials conducted by Biogen Idec and Novartis, is chair (honorary) of the MSBase Foundation, which has received research support from Merck Serono, Novartis, Biogen Idec, Genzyme Sanofi and CSL Biopharma and has received research support form Merck Serono. WMC has been the recipient of travel sponsorship from, and provided advice to, Bayer Schering Pharma, BiogenIdec, Novartis, Genzyme, Sanofi-Aventis, BioCSL and Merck Serono. RCD has received research funding from the National Health and Medical Research Council, MS Research Australia, Star Scientific Foundation, Pfizer Neuroscience, Tourette Syndrome Association, University of Sydney and the Petre Foundation and has received honoraria from Biogen Idec and Bristol-Myers Squibb as an invited speaker. MjF-P has received travel sponsorship from Biogen Australia and New Zealand. RH has received honoraria, educational support and clinic funding from Novartis, Biogen Idec, Genzyme and BioCSL. AGK has received scientific consulting fees and/or lecture honoraria from Bayer, BioCSL, BiogenIdec, Genzyme, Merck, Novartis, Sanofi-Aventis and Teva. TJK has received travel sponsorship from Novartis, BioCSL, Novartis, Merck Serono and BiogenIdec, has received speaker honoraria from Biogen Idec, BioCSL, Merck Serono, Teva, Genzyme and Novartis, has received research support from Biogen Idec, Genzyme, GlaxoSmithKline, Bayer Schering Pharma and Merck Serono and has received scientific consulting fees from GlaxoSmithKline China, Biogen Idec and Novartis. JK has received remuneration for advisory board activities and presentations from Bayer Healthcare, Biogen Idec, BioCSL, Genzyme and Novartis. CK has received travel support, honoraria and advisory board payments from Biogen Idec, Bayer,Genzyme, Novartis and Serono. JL-S has received unencumbered funding as well as honoraria for presentations and membership on advisory boards from Sanofi-Aventis, Biogen Idec, Bayer Health Care, CSL, Genzyme, Merck Serono, Novartis Australia and Teva. RALM has received honoraria for attendance at advisory boards and travel sponsorship from Bayer Schering Pharma, Biogen Idec, CSL, Merck Serono, Novartis and Sanofi-Genzyme. MPMa has received travel sponsorship, honoraria, trial payments, research and clinical support from Bayer Schering Pharma, Biogen Idec, BioCSL, Genzyme, Novartis and Sanofi-Aventis Genzyme. DFM has received honoraria for attendance at advisory boards from Biogen Idec and Novartis, and travel sponsorship from Bayer Schering Pharma, Biogen Idec and Sanofi-Genzyme. PAMcC has received honoraria or travel sponsorship from Novartis, Sanofi-Aventis and Biogen Idec. JAP has received travel sponsorship, honoraria for presentations and membership on advisory boards from Biogen Idec and Novartis and Sanofi-Aventis. JDP has received honoraria for seminars or advisory boards from Teva, Biogen, Sanofi-Genzyme, Novartis, Merck, Bayer and research grants or fellowships from Merck, Novartis, Bayer, Biogen, Sanofi-Genzyme and Teva. SWR has received travel sponsorship, honoraria, trial payments, research and clinical support from Aspreva, Baxter, Bayer Schering Pharma, Biogen Idec, BioCSL, Genzyme, Novartis, Sanofi-Aventis Genzyme and Servier, and is a director of Medical Safety Systems Pty Ltd. CPS has received travel sponsorship from Biogen Idec, Novartis and Bayer Schering Pharma. IS has received remuneration for Advisory Board activities from Biogen, CSL and Bayer Schering Pharma and educational activities with Biogen, CSL and travel sponsorship from Biogen, Novartis and Bayer Schering Pharma. MS has received research support from Novartis, Biogen Idec and BioCSL. JSp has received honoraria for lectures and participation in advisory boards, and travel sponsorship from Novartis, BioCSL, Genzyme and Biogen Idec. BVT has received travel sponsorship from Novartis and Bayer Schering Pharma. AV and the University of Oxford hold patents and receive royalties for antibody testing. PW and the University of Oxford hold patents for antibody assays and have received royalties, has received speaker honoraria from Biogen Idec and Euroimmun AG and travel grants from the Guthy-Jackson Charitable Foundation. EW has received honoraria for participation in advisory boards from Biogen Idec and Novartis, travel sponsorship from Biogen Idec, Bayer Schering Pharma and Teva and is an investigator in clinical trials funded by Biogen Idec and Teva. DA, SBh, SBl, KB, MBr, WBr, WBu, CSB, CCM, LC, AC, CD, KD, DF, DG, SHa, APDH, SHe, SHo, SJ-S, AJK, M-WL, CL, CO’G, MPM, CS, RS, JSt, AV, SV, MWa, RJW, RCW, MWo and EMY report no disclosures.
Patient consent This HREC-approved study involved written informed consent from all participants. No patient-identifying information or patient-specific images are included in the submitted documents.
Ethics approval Griffith University Human Research Ethics Committee.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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