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Is cerebrospinal fluid cytokine profile different in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-IgG-positive disorders, multiple sclerosis and anti-aquaporin 4 antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica?
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are autoimmune inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). The discovery of the disease-specific anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) autoantibody was a breakthrough in the pathogenesis of NMO.1 MS and NMO are distinct diseases with different immunological backgrounds and thereby cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokine profiles.2 Briefly, Th17 and Th2-related cytokines are upregulated in NMO but not in MS. Among elevated CSF cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6 was the most remarkable, and its level was closely related to the levels of astrocytic damage marker (CSF glia fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP)) and recovery from attacks,2 3 suggesting that CSF IL-6 could contribute to the NMO …
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