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- inclusion body myositis
- mitochondrial myopathies
- human immunodeficiency virus
- antiretroviral therapy
Myalgia or muscle weakness is frequently observed during HIV infection (1), and 15% of HIV patients may have an increased serum creatine kinase (CK) level.1 Case reports or case series have suggested that HIV-associated myopathies represent a large spectrum of disease.2
To date, data on muscle involvement during HIV infection remain sparse and we aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and evolution of biopsy-proven HIV-associated myopathies.
All HIV-positive patients who had a muscle biopsy performed at the Pitié-Salpêtrière University Hospital between 2001 and 2012 were identified.
Medical records were retrospectively reviewed to assess muscle disease features and HIV infection characteristics. Patients were classified histologically as polymyositis (PM), non-specific myositis (NSM), immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), or inclusion body myositis (IBM) according to the European Neuromuscular Center (ENMC) criteria.3 4 Isolated mitochondrial abnormality (IMA) was defined as presence of cytochrome c oxidase negative fibres and/or succinate dehydrogenase positive staining without inflammatory cell infiltrate or rimmed vacuoles.
PM or NSM evolution towards IBM was evaluated at follow-up. Uncontrolled viral load was defined as >40 copies/mL.
Categorical variables are reported herein as numbers and/or percentages and were compared using a χ2 or Fisher’s exact test. Quantitative variables are reported as median (IQR1–IQR3) and compared using non-parametric one-way one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). For all statistical analyses, p<0.05 was considered significant. Statistical analyses were conducted using GraphPad Prism software.
Fifty HIV-positive patients …
OL-C and LG contributed equally.
Contributors Conceptualisation and design: OL-C, LG, OB and YA. Acquisition of data: OL-C, LG, OD, TM, SL, DB, AS, AB, TS, CD, GB, AR, OF, M-CM, CL, M-AV, DV, J-FB, TH, M-PC, ZA, TdB, BE, NB, OB and YA. Analysis and interpretation: OL-C, LG, OB and YA. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: OL-C, LG, OD, TM, SL, DB, AS, AB, TS, CD, GB, AR, OF, M-CM, CL, M-AV, DV, J-FB, TH, M-PC, ZA, TdB, BE, NB, OB and YA.
Competing interests OL-C is the recipient of Clinical Fellowship awards from the Université de Montréal Rheumatology Program - Abbvie Educational Grant and the Association des médecins rhumatologues du Québec - Visithan-Khy Educational Grant.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Ethics approval The study was approved by local Ethics Committee (CPP Ile De France VI (2013-12-19), CCTIRS (N°14.323) and CNIL (915139)) for the use of medical information recorded in the myositis database for scientific purposes.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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