Article Text

Download PDFPDF

Review
Seizures and movement disorders: phenomenology, diagnostic challenges and therapeutic approaches
  1. Maria Eliza Freitas1,
  2. Marta Ruiz-Lopez2,
  3. Josep Dalmau3,
  4. Roberto Erro4,
  5. Michael Privitera5,
  6. Danielle Andrade6,
  7. Alfonso Fasano7
  1. 1 Medicine, McMaster University Division of Neurology, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  2. 2 Service of Neurology, Fundación Jimenez Diaz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain
  3. 3 Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
  4. 4 Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry 'Scuola Medica Salernitana', University of Salerno, UCL Institute of Neurology, Baronissi, Italy
  5. 5 Epilepsy Center, University of Cincinnati Gardner Neuroscience Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
  6. 6 Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  7. 7 Neurology, Krembil Brain Institute; Movement Disorders Centre and the Edmond J Safra Program in Parkinson’s Disease, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  1. Correspondence to Dr Alfonso Fasano, Neurology, Movement Disorders Centre and the Edmond J Safra Program in Parkinson’s Disease, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; alfonso.fasano{at}gmail.com

Abstract

Seizures and movement disorders (MDs) are distinct neurological conditions presenting with abnormal movements. Despite sharing an overlap in phenomenology, these movements have different origins. In order to explore the overlaps and the narrow boundaries between these two conditions, we performed a review of the literature to explore the risk of seizures in MDs. We discussed the mimics and chameleons including MDs that look like seizure (eg, paroxysmal dyskinesia, status dystonicus) and seizures that look like MDs (eg, epilepsia partialis continua, nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy). Additionally, we examined the therapeutic challenges as well as the anatomical and chemical pathways relevant in the interplay between epilepsy and MDs. Finally, we proposed an algorithm to guide clinicians towards the final diagnosis of conditions characterised by the co-occurrence of MDs and seizures.

  • epilepsy
  • seizures
  • movement disorders
View Full Text

Statistics from Altmetric.com

Footnotes

  • Contributors MEF: design and conceptualised study; analysed the data; drafted the manuscript and tables; revised the manuscript for intellectual content. MR-L: analysed the data; drafted the manuscript and tables; revised the manuscript for intellectual content. JD: drafted and revised the manuscript for intellectual content. RE: drafted and revised the manuscript for intellectual content. MP: drafted and revised the manuscript for intellectual content. DA: analysed the data; drafted and revised the manuscript for intellectual content. AF: design and conceptualised the study; analysed the data; drafted the manuscript, tables and figures; revised the manuscript for intellectual content.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests JD reports grants and non-financial support from Euroimmun. RE reports personal fees from TEVA, personal fees from Zambon and from Cambridge University Press. MP reports grants from Epilepsy Foundation, grants and personal fees from GW Pharma, grants and personal fees from SK Life Science, grants from Sage, grants from NIH, personal fees from Astellas and personal fees from Upsher-Smith. DA reports grants from Dravet.ca, grants from Ontario Brain Institute, and grants from McLaughlin Foundation, Eisai and Stoke. AF reports grants, personal fees and non-financial support from AbbVie, grants, personal fees and non-financial support from Boston Scientific, grants, personal fees and non-financial support from Medtronic, grants and personal fees from Sunovion, grants and personal fees from Ipsen, grants from Merz, personal fees from Chiesi, and personal fees from UCB.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.